Heilongjiang adopts biotechnology to select superior crop varieties

Heilongjiang Province has an annual output of 70 billion kilograms of grain. According to the scientific research personnel of the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, at present, Heilongjiang Province has widely adopted biotechnological methods in the breeding of crops such as wheat, rice, and soybeans.

If the traditional breeding model of "a ruler and a scale" is likened to a "rifle", the modern breeding model using biotechnology means "missile." Using biotechnology, not only new disease-resistance genes can be discovered, but also new, high-yield, high-yield varieties can be bred. At the same time, the breeding cycle can be greatly shortened and the replacement of good varieties can be accelerated.

What is even more disparate is that for many crops, researchers need to select their disease-resistance genes for one or two years, but only one or two days by biological means. Biotechnology has made it difficult to overcome some of the bottlenecks in traditional breeding. In the past, when seeds with resistant genes were selected, seeds were planted in the fields. Researchers tried every means to create disease conditions until the fall, measure yield, and screen for improved varieties. If we do not have disease conditions in that year, such as screening for drought-resistant varieties, no drought occurred in the year, we will not be able to elect, and we will have to stay for one year to try again in the coming year. It will take longer to select a stable seed. Now molecular markers are used to assist in breeding, and without seeding, it can be seen whether the seeds have disease resistance genes. In the past, it took about 10 years to develop a new variety. Using biological means, it can save 3 to 5 years than conventional breeding.

At present, Heilongjiang Province has selected a number of new varieties with high yield, high quality, and strong resistance to disease and disease through the use of biotechnology. For wheat varieties only, Longfumai No. 8, No. 10 and No. 16 were cultivated at the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and they were the main varieties at that time. Among them, Longfumai 8 is the earliest breed cultivated by the provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences using biotechnology. According to Wang Guangjin, deputy director of the Institute of Biotechnology of the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, root rot and scab-resistance are the two major diseases affecting wheat yield in Heilongjiang Province. Both of these diseases are controlled by multiple genes and the disease-resistance resources are very high. less. Through gamma ray irradiation treatment, the seeds are mutagenized and screened against diseased cells, and the ability to resist root rot is improved on the basis of maintaining the high yield and quality of the original variety. The cumulative promotion area of ​​this species reached 7 million mu. Subsequently, the research institute again used a combination of in vitro mutagenesis and cell screening to select and breed scab-resistant Longfumai 10. The variety won the second national Agricultural Fair Silver Award, and was rated as national-level high-quality bread wheat, which was approved in the year to promote 104 million mu. The Institute also adopted the method of “somatic cell mutation” to screen for Longfeimai 16, which is resistant to both root rot and head blight at the same time. In 2006, the Provincial Farming and Reclamation Bureau conducted a large-scale production survey. The average yield of 980 mu of land reached 978.5 kg.

In terms of rice, the Jiamusi Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences used biological means to breed new varieties of rice, such as Longjing 14 and Longjing 16, and brought huge economic benefits to farmers after the promotion. Haploid induction technology for maize is currently available. In the research stage, the economic benefits will be even broader.

At present, biotechnology has been widely used in the selection and breeding of wheat, rice, and soybean crops in Heilongjiang province. Not only that, Heilongjiang Province also possesses research and development capabilities such as biological pesticides, biological fertilizers, biological activators, and biological feed additives. Among them, soy-coated surfactants, high-efficiency active foliar fertilizers, bio-seeds treatment agents, legume rhizobia and other new series of products have reached a total area of ​​26 million mu. Biotechnology has become an important part of the development of modern agriculture, which has greatly promoted the rapid and healthy development of agriculture in Heilongjiang Province.

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