Abstract The reporter learned that the long-awaited top-level design scheme for pension insurance has entered the stage of brewing. The plan will comprehensively plan the main objectives, basic principles, institutional models, institutional systems and operational mechanisms of China's pension insurance reform in the coming decades, three pillars...The reporter learned that the long-awaited top-level design scheme for pension insurance has entered the stage of brewing. The plan will comprehensively plan the main objectives, basic principles, institutional models, institutional systems and operational mechanisms of China's pension insurance reform in the coming decades, and the three pillars of the pension insurance system will be further established.
On the issue of sustainable development of pension insurance, Yin Weimin, Minister of Human Resources and Social Security, said at a press conference held at the State New Office on March 1 that as the population ages, the population dependency ratio will change, so Without strong measures, there will be problems with the operation of the pension fund. It is necessary to plan ahead, carry out the reform of the pension insurance system, and adopt comprehensive measures to ensure the sustainable development of the pension insurance fund.
Yin Weimin mentioned that the sustainable development of the basic old-age insurance system can be viewed from three levels: On the first level, the operation of the pension fund is generally stable. Last year's basic pension insurance balance was more than 260 billion yuan, and the accumulated balance was 3.67 trillion yuan, which can guarantee 17 months of payment. On the second level, the main problem in the operation of pension funds is the imbalance between regions, and the differences between provinces are relatively large. High provinces can guarantee 50 months of payment, especially in difficult provinces, the current period can not be paid, and the accumulated balance is basically used up. On the third level, the sustainable operation of the pension fund really needs to attract everyone's attention. The aging of the population is a common problem faced by all countries in the world. China's pension insurance system was established more than 20 years ago. At that time, the population dependency ratio was 5:1, and it has now continued to drop to 2.8:1. Therefore, various effective measures must be taken. To solve this problem.
In fact, although the various levels of China's pension insurance system have achieved development, they still face their own difficulties, and the system has reached the crossroads of change. Zheng Bingwen, director of the World Social Security Research Center of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that the current reform of the three pillar pensions is facing severe challenges. The challenge of the first pillar public pension (basic pension insurance) is mainly how to improve financial sustainability. This includes improving the personal account system, raising the level of overall planning, allocating state-owned assets, raising the retirement age, and so on. The challenge of the second pillar enterprise annuity system is that the employee participation rate is very low, the number of participants is only 23 million, and from the year-on-year growth, it is almost stagnant. The system of occupational annuity also faces many challenges. For example, how to solve the problem of the ratio of the rate of return on the unit's payment and the rate of replacement, how to effectively avoid the moral hazard of the agency's principal agent and solve the opportunity cost problem, how to solve the system platform Cost of construction and operation and maintenance. The challenge of the third pillar tax incentives is how to design an institutional framework that can continuously maintain the incentive and portability of urban and rural residents. Otherwise, the participation rate will be low and the â€œmulti-levelâ€ will be shelved.
Since 2013, after the joint research of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security and the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the National Social Security Fund Council, and the National Federation of Trade Unions, the top-level design plan for pension insurance has been drafted, and decisions will be made soon. Open the curtain of the reform of China's pension system.
It is understood that the top-level design adheres to the basic pension insurance system model for urban workers and urban and rural residents as determined by the Social Insurance Law, and comprehensively plans the main objectives, basic principles, institutional models, institutional systems, and operational mechanisms of China's pension insurance reform in the coming decades. Road map and timetable. The plan will further clarify major issues such as perfecting individual pension insurance personal accounts, implementing a gradual delayed retirement age, and increasing the long-term balance of funds.
Regarding how to deal with the challenges faced by pension insurance and the sustainable development of pension insurance, Jin Weigang, director of the Social Security Research Institute of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, believes that, first of all, it is necessary to implement the national pooling of urban workers' basic endowment insurance. Through national co-ordination, the fund's ability to resist risks and sustainable development can be enhanced, and the central government's subsidy funds can be fully utilized. â€œBecause the current financial subsidies are more than 90% of the central government's finances, the government will further increase the financial subsidies for the funds. Strength," he said.
Second, the establishment of a pension adjustment mechanism that takes into account various groups of pensions. After 12 years of continuous adjustment of pensions, the pressure on the fund's revenue and expenditure is increasing. It is necessary to learn from international experience and establish a reasonable and standardized pension adjustment mechanism.
Third, we should promote the construction of a multi-level old-age security system. On the one hand, we should promote the development of enterprise annuities and occupational annuities. On the other hand, the allocation of state-owned capital enriches the basic pension insurance fund for employees. "China is a country in transition, and there are historical debts and turning costs. Now, the high rate of pension insurance is closely related to the fact that the cost of turning is not properly solved." Jin Weigang said that it is necessary to enrich the pension fund by allocating state-owned capital. The ability to withstand, while also being able to properly reduce the rate.
Zheng Bingwen said that the era calls for the scientific, open and transparent design of the three-pillar pension top-level design, calling for the three-pillar pension system design to avoid fragmentation and patching reforms to the utmost extent; completely abandoning the stone crossing the river. Pilot "thinking formula"; fully absorb the academic research results of "grounding gas" in the territory, fully draw on foreign mature technology and useful experience (including actuarial technology), and give full play to the authority and coordination of the central government.
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